Patterns of autoimmune diseases among Yemeni children with Down syndrome

Waled A. Al-Dubai 1*, Jameel A. Al-Ghazaly2, Sami S. Al-Dubai3, Najlaa Z. Amer1

1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana'a, Yemen

2 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana'a, Yemen 3 Aulaqui Specialized Medical Laboratories, Sana'a, Yemen.

SUJMS • 2021 | Jane | Vol 15| Issue. (1))

Introduction:

Down syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21, represents the most common chromosomal abnormality associated with intellectual impairment [1]. Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder with prevalence estimates ranging from 6.1 to 13.1 per 10,000 people [2,3]. Most often DS results from complete trisomy of chromosome 21, due to non-disjunction during gamete formation (about 95%), while the remaining ones are due to either complete or partial translocation of chromosome 21 to another chromosome, typically in the D (13–15) or G (21–22)

group [4]. Down syndrome is the most common recognizable genetic syndrome associated with abnormal immune function and immune defects. Individuals with DS have a higher incidence of autoimmune disorders [5]. The increased susceptibility to infections has been associated with atypical immune function in conjunction with various non-immune related medical and anatomical comorbidities [6]. Among those, endocrinopathies are the most common [7]. The physiopathological bases for these changes are not fully understood, and studies suggest that endocrine dysfunction in DS may be multifactorial,

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